Nearsightedness: Myopia CausesMyopia is caused by a cornea that is too steeply curved. It can also be caused by an eye that is longer than normal. In both cases, light rays are focused in front of the retina instead of on it.
Hyperopia (farsightedness), is a refractive error, which means that the eye does not bend or refract light properly to a single focus to see images clearly. In hyperopia, distant objects look somewhat clear, but close objects appear more blurred.
Astigmatism is an imperfection in the curvature of your eye’s cornea or lens. It may be helpful to think of the normal eye as being shaped like a basketball. With astigmatism, it's shaped more like a football. When the steepest curve runs vertically, with the football lying on its side.